Second Wave Analysis and Confirmed Forecasts of the SARS-Cov-2 Epidemic Outbreak in São Paulo, Brazil
Objective: A SEIR compartmental model was previously selected to estimate future outcomes to the dynamics of the Covid-19 epidemic breakout in Brazil. Method: Compartments for individuals vaccinated and prevalent SARS-Cov-2 variants were not included. A time-dependent incidence weight on the reproductive basic number accounted for Non Pharmaceutical Interventions (NPI). A first series of published data from March 1st to May 8, 2020 was used to adjust all model parameters aiming to forecast one year of evolutionary outbreak. The cohort study was set as a city population-based analysis. Analysis: A population-based sample of 25,366 confirmed cases on exposed individuals was used during the first study period. The analysis was applied to predict the consequences of NPI enforcements followed by progressive releases, and indicates the appearance of a second wave starting last quarter of 2020. Findings: By March 1st 2021, the number of confirmed cases was predicted to reach 0.47Million (0.24-0.78), and fatalities would account for 21 thousand (12-33), 5 to 95% CRI. A second series of data published from May 9, 2020 to March 1st, 2021 confirms the forecasts previously reported for the evolution of infected people and fatalities. Novelty: By March 1st 2021, the number of confirmed cases reached 527,710 (12% above the predicted average of accumulated cases) and fatalities accounted for 18,769 (10% below the accumulated average of estimated fatalities). After March 1st, new peaks on reported numbers of daily new infected and new fatalities appeared as a combined result to the appearance of the prevalent SARS-CoV-2 P1 variant, and the increased number of vaccinated individuals.
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